NOVI AKTERI U MEĐUNARODNIM ODNOSIMA: RAZLIKA IZMEĐU AL-KAIDE I ISIL-A / NEW PLAYERS IN INTERNATIONAL AFFAIRS: DIFFERENCE BETWEEN AL – QAEDA AND ISIS

Mirnes Kovač

Sažetak


UDK 323.28:[28:061.236.4 

Sažetak

Sagledavajući nove tipove transnacionalnih terorističkih organizacija, ovaj rad kompariranjem AlKaide i ISIL-a u kratkim crtama donosi pregled nastanka, razvoja i suzbijanja ove dvije organizacije u posljednjih trideset godina u kontekstu novih značajnih aktera u međunarodnim odnosima. Međunarodni terorizam kojeg je kao svoj vlastiti brend na globalnu scenu plasirala Al-Kaida, a kasnije dodatno usavršio ISIL, umnogome je utjecao na međunarodne odnose kao remetilački faktor, te je sam stvorio nove aktere, promijenio je tokove međunarodne ekonomije, saobraćaja, komunikacija, sigurnosti, prostim riječima kazano – izvršio je ogroman utjecaj na svijet tako da su mnogi autori 11. septembar označili kao historijsku prekretnicu. Suštinska razlika između Al-Kaide i ISIL-a jeste da je prva više bila mreža terorista i organizacija koje je koristila zemlju domaćina kao svoju bazu djelovanja, te svoje terorističke aktivnosti širom svijeta sprovodila putem podružnica koje su joj iskazivale lojalnost, više u ideološkom nego praktičnom smislu, dok je ISIL nakon što je faktički nastao iz Al-Kaide, odnosno njene podružnice u Iraku, potom raskinuo odnose sa maticom i svoje dejstvo proširio na ratom zahvaćenu Siriju, uspio uspostaviti teritorij, stanovništvo i granice – što mu je u jednom vremenskom intervalu davalo obilježja države. Koristeći se historijsko-komparativnom metodom ovaj tekst analitički sagledava američke i općenite svjetske strategije borbe protiv ovih organizacija i pojedinaca, koje jesu obezglavljene, ali nisu u potpunosti uništene, te nastoji ocijeniti koliko propusti u ovom sada već dvodecenijskom poduhvatu mogu u područjima konfliktnih zona, razrušenih društava i sistema stvoriti uslove za pojavu nekih novih i opasnijih reakcionarnih ideologija i terorističkih organizacija.

sUMMARY

Analysing the new types of transnational terorist organisations, this article compares Al-Qaeda and ISIS and offers a breif review of the origin and the evolvement of these organisations along with the view of the ways in which these were countered in the last three decades, all in the context of new significant players that have emerged in international relations. International terrorism which Al-Qaeda addopted as its brand name and placed onto the world scene, and was later further developed by ISIS, has had a substantial impact upon the international relations as a disturbing factor and it has itself created new actors and has changed the flows of international economy, traffic, communication, security, in simple words – it had an enormous impact upon the entire world, to such an extent that many aouthors now take the September 11th as a turning point in the worlds history. The essential difference between Al – Qaeda and ISIS lies in the fact that the first was a net of terrorists and organisations which used the host’s country as the bases for its activities and was managing its activities throughot the world with the assistance, more ideological than practical, of its loyal affiliates; whereas ISIS, after it actualy emmerged out of the Al – Qaeda, fromed its affilate in Iraq precisely, and broke up with its mother organisation to spread its activities within the war affected territories of Syria and managed to establish a territory, its own population and borders – which for the certain time period gave it traits of a state. Using a historically – comparative method this article takes an analytical view of American and generally world strategies of countering these organisations which, even though beheaded are stil not completely annihilated, and it attempts to estimate to what extent the blanders in this, now two decades, mission could bring about creation of fertile ground for an emergence of some new and perhaps even more dangerously reactionary ideologies and terrorist organisations within the areas of conflicts.


Ključne riječi


Međunarodni odnosi, terorizam, Al-Kaida, ISIL, 11. septembar, Osama bin Laden, Abu Bakr Al-Bagdadi, George W. Bush, džihad, Irak, Afganistan, Sirija, Saudijska Arabija, Sudan, SAD / international relations, terorism, Al-Qaeda, ISIS, 11th September, Osama



DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.26340/muallim.v20i79.1738

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